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J Exerc Rehabil > Volume 18(5);2022 > Article
Lee, Moon, and Kim: The effects of workers’ job stress on organizational commitment and leaving intention in commercial sports centers

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the job stress of commercial sports center workers on organizational commitment and turnover intention. The causal relationship between their demographic characteristics and job stress was investigated for 261 out of 300 workers working at commercial sports centers in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi province. There was a difference by work type, and it was found that there was a difference between regular and contract workers. Role-related and interpersonal relationships had a negative influence relationship in terms of tenure commitment, normative commitment, and affective commitment. Job characteristics, role-related, interpersonal relationship, and compensation system had an influence on turnover intention. In other words, it was found that role-related and interpersonal relationships had a positive effect on turnover intention, and job characteristics and compensation system had a negative effect on turnover intention. It was found that job stress affects both organizational commitment and turnover intention. The results of this study indicate that job stress, organizational commitment, and turnover intention should be dealt with mainly in order to reduce turnover intention of commercial sports center workers. In other words, clearer guidelines on the role of commercial sports center workers and various welfare programs for improving human relationships should be provided. Therefore, commercial sports centers should continuously research and develop ways to maximize job satisfaction from the perspective of workers in order to reduce job stress and induce positive organizational commitment.

INTRODUCTION

As sports centers become saturated, the reality is that management deteriorates, and there are many problems such as job stress and turnover of employees. Although professional workers are assigned to each field, the number of workers is significantly insufficient compared to the number of members. As a result, the working environment for workers is getting worse. Therefore, the reality is that most sports center workers are under a lot of work stress due to excessive work. Ultimately, it is necessary to investigate the effect of job dissatisfaction caused by excessive work of sports center workers on the turnover of workers. Therefore, through a study on job stress, the factors causing job stress in commercial sports center workers were identified and organizational commitment and how it affects turnover intention. An empirical study is required to establish a management plan for effective job stress coping of sports center service staff.
Occupational stress means that it occurs when a sports organization fails to provide a work environment that matches the motivation or ability of its members, or when a member’s ability cannot handle the work environment required and provided by the organization. In this study, the job stress scale developed by Parker and DeCotiis (1983) was quantified. Job stress is composed of factors such as job characteristics, role-related, interpersonal relationships, and compensation system and organizational characteristics.
Organizational commitment is a term that describes the relationship between an individual and an organization, and is used as a concept to express attachment to the goals or values pursued by the organization, the will to work hard for the organization, and the will to remain a member of the organization. In this study, organizational commitment was classified into affective, tenure, and normative commitment, and it refers to organizational commitment measured by the “organizational commitment test tool” that translated the scale developed by Allen and Meyer (1990).
Turnover intention is a deliberate and thoughtful thought to voluntarily leave the organization (Teet and Meyer, 1993) and a psychological state to leave the current job (Hom et al., 1992). Actions that move out of the organization. In this study, it means the intention of commercial sports center workers to deviate from their current job without being able to settle in the organization.
The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze and identify the relationship between job-related factors and turnover among members of commercial sports center organizations that are playing a leading role in improving people’s quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide basic data so that workers in commercial sports centers can become more efficient working environments by examining the effects of job stress on organizational commitment and turnover intention according to the personal characteristics of commercial sports center workers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research subject

Employees 300 working in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi regions were selected. Commercial sports centers with 10 or more workers were used as the standard. A total of 300 recovered questionnaires were extracted, and 261 copies of data were actually analyzed, excluding 39 who responded insincerely. The demographic characteristics of specific survey subjects are shown in Table 1.

Questionnaire composition

The composition of the questionnaire is shown in Table 2.

Job stress

Factors related to job stress were constructed as follows based on the views of Parker and DeCotiis (1983). It consists of 5 items, including job characteristics, role-related, human relations, compensation system, and organizational characteristics, and a total of 25 items. The scale used by Cooper and Davidson (1982) was modified and supplemented to match the purpose and subject of this study, and 25 items were measured. The scale composition of the questionnaire consisted of a 5-step Likert scale of 1 point for “not at all,” 2 points for “disagree,” 3 points for “average,” 4 points for “agree,” and 5 points for “strongly agree.”

Organizational commitment

The survey tools used in this study to measure organizational commitment are the scales defined by Allen and Meyer (1990). Commitment Scale). This was corrected and supplemented to match the purpose and subject of this study, and 24 items were measured. The scale composition of the questionnaire consisted of a 5-step Likert scale.

Intention to leave

Based on the items developed by Blau (1985), three items were measured by modifying and supplementing them to meet the purpose and subject of this study. It was constructed on a 5-step Likert scale.

Validity and reliability

The validity verification method was supplemented through the development of questionnaires based on the collection of literature and expert opinions, expert meetings, and preliminary examinations. The draft questionnaire completed through this process was reviewed for content validity and item suitability through an expert group. In addition, in this study, exploratory factor analysis was performed to verify the validity of the questionnaire. First, an exploratory factor analysis was performed to verify validity. For factor extraction, the maximum likelihood method was used, and for the exploratory factor analysis, principal component analysis and orthogonal rotation method varimax were used. In this study, Cronbach’s α value was used to verify the reliability of the questionnaire.

Data processing

For the data processing of this study, the collected questionnaires were coded for statistical processing. Statistics were processed using IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach α were performed to verify the validity and reliability of the survey tool. The t-test and one-way analysis of variance were performed to verify the difference between two or more groups according to demographic characteristics. The significance level was set as P<0.05.

RESULTS

Differences in job stress according to general characteristics

As a result of examining the difference in job stress according to general characteristics, there was a difference by work type, and regular workers were higher than contract workers. As a result of examining the differences in job stress (job characteristics) according to general characteristics, there were differences by education level and occupation, and the level of education was university graduate was the highest, followed by college graduates and high school graduates. In terms of occupation, managers were higher than leaders. In terms of job stress (role-related) according to general characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, education level, working years, monthly salary, working type, and general characteristics of occupation. According to the general characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences in the general characteristics of gender, age, education level, years of service, salary, work type, and job type in job stress (interpersonal relationship). In terms of job stress (organizational characteristics) according to general characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, education level, years of service, salary, work type, and general characteristics of the job. As a result of examining the difference in job stress (compensation system) according to general characteristics, there was a difference by education level, with high school graduates showing the highest, and college graduates and university graduates appeared in the order.

Effect of job stress on organizational commitment

It was found that job stress (job characteristics, role-related, human relations, organizational characteristics, compensation system) affects the role-related, human relations, organizational characteristics, and compensation system of organizational commitment (service commitment). In other words, role-related and interpersonal relationships were found to have a negative effect on employee commitment, and organizational characteristics and compensation systems were found to have a positive effect on employee commitment. Role-related, interpersonal relationship, organizational characteristics, and compensation system were found to have an influence. In other words, role-related and interpersonal relationships were found to have a negative effect on normative commitment, and organizational characteristics and reward systems were found to have a positive effect on normative commitment. Role-related, interpersonal relationship, organizational characteristics, and compensation system were found to have an influence. In other words, role-related and interpersonal relationships were found to have a negative effect on affective commitment, and organizational characteristics and compensation systems were found to have a positive effect on affective commitment.

Effect of job stress on turnover intention

As a result of examining the effects of job stress (job characteristics, role-related, human relations, organizational characteristics, compensation system) on turnover intention, the following results were found. It was found that job characteristics, role-related, interpersonal relationships, and compensation system had an effect on turnover intention. In other words, role-related and interpersonal relationships were found to have a positive effect on turnover intention, and job characteristics and compensation system were found to have a negative effect on turnover intention.

The effect of organizational commitment on turnover intention

The results of examining the effect of organizational commitment on turnover intention were as follows. Organizational commitment was found to have an effect on turnover intention. In other words, organizational commitment was found to have a negative effect on turnover intention.

DISCUSSION

Job stress refers to all stress related to job performance, and the concept is expressed differently depending on the research approach, such as environmental characteristics, stimuli and responses, and interactions between individuals and the environment. Parker and DeCotiis (1983) defined job stress as a dysfunctional emotion or consciousness that a specific individual feels as a result of perceived conditions or events at the workplace, and an individual’s feelings of trying to leave the workplace. Beehr and Newman (1978) conceptualize job stress as a mental and physical condition that causes an individual to deviate from normal functioning due to an interaction situation between work-related factors and the worker.
Organizational commitment was identified as a more positive and active tendency toward the organization and divided into three categories. First, it refers to identification as a strong belief in accepting the purpose and values of the organization. Second, it means attachment as a will to exert considerable effort for the sake of the organization. Third, there is a strong desire to remain in the organization. Reichers (1986) pointed out that there is a problem in looking at organizational commitment as an attitude through their definition, because the intention to put effort into the organization and the desire to stay in the organization refer to the individual’s intention to act, not the individual’s psychological attitude. Among the factors of organizational commitment, emotional commitment is related to work autonomy and meaning, skill diversity, supervisor feedback, and participatory management. Normative commitment is related to organizational dependence and participatory management, and sustaining commitment is related to age, tenure, and career satisfaction (Dunham et al., 1994). Turnover, in a broad sense, includes all movement of members of an organization into and out of an organization, and in a narrow sense, it means leaving one’s current job and moving to another job or job.
In order to investigate the effect of job stress of commercial sports center workers on organizational commitment and turnover intention, this study selected 300 workers working in commercial sports centers with 10 or more people located in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi province. As a result of examining the difference in job stress according to general characteristics, there was a difference by work type, and regular workers were higher than contract workers. The reason is thought to be that job stress is high when a job environment that matches the individual’s motivation or ability cannot be provided or when the individual’s ability is difficult to handle the job environment.
Job stress (job characteristics, role-related, human relations, organizational characteristics, compensation system) affects organizational commitment, service commitment, normative commitment, and affective commitment), and role-related, human relationship, organizational characteristics, and compensation system all affect. It was found that role-related and interpersonal relationships had a negative effect on retention commitment, and organizational characteristics and compensation system had a positive effect on retention commitment. As a result of examining the effect of job stress (job characteristics, role-related, human relations, organizational characteristics, compensation system) on turnover intention, role-related and human relations had a positive effect on turnover intention. Characteristics and compensation system showed a negative effect. This suggests that the results of this study and commercial sports center workers have more meaning in the causal relationship and role-related aspects in the expectations and attractiveness of the current job than in the compensation system, since there are many younger subjects.
As a result of correlation analysis to find out the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention, it was found that the correlation coefficient between organizational commitment and turnover intention had a negative effect. Specifically, it was said that the relationship between conflict of commitment and intention to leave has a stronger negative correlation with longer tenure. Therefore, in order to enhance organizational commitment through job stress reduction, measures are needed for job autonomy, etc., among job characteristics that have a relatively strong influence on organizational commitment.
In order to block the negative effects of job stress on the organizational commitment of commercial sports center workers, redesign of the job, clear job regulations, establishment of a smooth communication system, periodic interviews at a certain time, education and training for the development of competence of members, etc. A systematic effort is required to remove the factors that induce job stress through the method of If these various policies are prepared, it will be an opportunity to naturally reduce the turnover rate of workers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors received no financial support for this article.

Notes

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

REFERENCES

Allen NJ, Meyer JP. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment of the organization. J Occup Psychol. 1990;63:1–8.


Beehr JA, Newman JE. Job stress, employee, health and organizational effectiveness: a facet analysis, model and literature view. Pers Psychol. 1978;31:669–670.


Blau GJ. The measurement and prediction of career commitment. J Occup Psychol. 1985;58:277–288.
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Cooper CL, Davidson MJ. The higher cost of stress on woman managers. Organ Dyn. 1982;10:44–53.


Dunham R, Grube J, Castaneda M. Organizational commitment: the utility of an integrative definition. J Appl Psychol. 1994;79:370–380.
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Hom PW, Caranikas-Walker F, Prussia GE, Griffeth RW. A meta-analysis structural equations analysis of a model of employee turnover. J Appl Psychol. 1992;77:890–909.


Parker DF, DeCotiis TA. Organizational determinants of job stress. Organ Behav Hum Perform. 1983;32:160–177.
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Reichers A. Conflict and organizational commitment. J Appl Psychol. 1986;71:508–514.


Teet RP, Meyer JP. Job satisfaction, organization commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analysis based on meta-analytic findings. Pers Psychol. 1993;46:259–293.


Table 1
General characteristics of participants
Characteristic No. (%)
Gender
 Man 208 (79.7)
 Woman 53 (20.3)

Age
 20’s 206 (78.9)
 30’s 55 (21.1)

Education level
 High school graduate 75 (28.7)
 College graduate 152 (58.3)
 University graduate or higher 34 (13.0)

Working year
 Less than 1 year 37 (14.2)
 More than 1 year and less than 2 years 79 (30.3)
 More than 2 years and less than 3 years 95 (36.4)
 More than 3 years 50 (19.1)

Monthly salary
 Less than 800,000 KRW 88 (33.7)
 More than 800,000 won and less than 1,200,000 KRW 115 (44.1)
 More than 1,200,000 won and less than 1,800,000 KRW 29 (11.1)
 More than 1,800,000 KRW 29 (11.1)

Working type
 Contacting worker 243 (93.1)
 Full-time 18 (6.9)

Occupation
 Leader 193 (73.9)
 Manager 68 (26.1)

KRW, Korean won.

Table 2
Questionnaire contents
Composition Indicator No. of constituent items
Demographic characteristics Gender, age, education level, position, years of service, monthly income 6

Job stress Job characteristics 5
Role-related 5
Relationships 5
Compensation system 5
Organizational characteristics 5

Organizational commitment Affective commitment 8
Long-term commitment 8
Normative commitment 8

Intention to leave - 3

Total number of questions - 58

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